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Zed Attack Proxy (ZAP) scanner reference for STO

Zed Attack Proxy (ZAP) is a free, open-source penetration tool for testing web applications. ZAP runs as a “man-in-the-middle proxy” between the tester’s browser and the web app. You can use ZAP to run penetration testing to simulate a malicious external attack and use the results to protect your app from unauthorized access and denial-of-service attacks.

Important notes for running ZAP scans in STO

If you're running a ZAP scan that uses context files such as auth scripts, context files, or URL files, specify the following shared folders and make sure that your Run step copies in the required files.

  • /shared/customer_artifacts/authScript/<artifact_file_name>
  • /shared/customer_artifacts/context/<artifact_file_name>
  • /shared/customer_artifacts/urlFile/<artifact_file_name>
  • /shared/customer_artifacts/hosts/<artifact_file_name>

For more information

The following topics contain useful information for setting up scanner integrations in STO:

Docker-in-Docker requirements


Docker-in-Docker is not required for ingestion workflows where the scan data has already been generated.

You need to include a Docker-in-Docker background service in your stage if either of these conditions apply:

  • You configured your scanner using a generic Security step rather than a scanner-specific template such as Aqua Trivy, Bandit, Mend, Snyk, etc.
  • You’re scanning a container image using an Orchestration or Extraction workflow.
Set up a Docker-in-Docker background step
  1. Go to the stage where you want to run the scan.

  2. In Overview, add the shared path /var/run.

  3. In Execution, do the following:

    1. Click Add Step and then choose Background.

    2. Configure the Background step as follows:

      1. Dependency Name = dind

      2. Container Registry = The Docker connector to download the DinD image. If you don't have one defined, go to Docker connector settings reference.

      3. Image = docker:dind

      4. Under Entry Point, add the following: dockerd

        In most cases, using dockerd is a faster and more secure way to set up the background step. For more information, go to the TLS section in the Docker quick reference.

        If the DinD service doesn't start with dockerd, clear the Entry Point field and then run the pipeline again. This starts the service with the default entry point.

      5. Under Optional Configuration, select the Privileged checkbox.

Configure the background step

Root access requirements

You need to run the scan step with root access if either of the following apply:

  • You need to run a Docker-in-Docker background service. This is required in the following scenarios only:

    • You're using a generic Security step to run an Orchestrated or Extraction scan, rather than a scanner-specific step such as Aqua Trivy, Bandit, etc. (not required for Ingestion scans).

    • You're scanning a container image using an Orchestrated or Extraction scan (not required for Ingestion scans).

  • You need to add trusted certificates to your scan images at runtime.


You can set up your STO scan images and pipelines to run scans as non-root and establish trust for your own proxies using self-signed certificates. For more information, go to Configure STO to Download Images from a Private Registry.

ZAP step settings for STO scans

The recommended workflow is add a ZAP step to a Security Tests or CI Build stage and then configure it as described below. You can also configure ZAP scans programmatically by copying, pasting, and editing the YAML definition.

Scanner Template example


Scan Mode

This integration supports the following orchestration modes.

  • Orchestrated A fully-orchestrated scan. A Security step in the Harness pipeline orchestrates a scan and then normalizes and compresses the results.
  • Ingestion Ingestion scans are not orchestrated. The Security step ingest results from a previous scan (for a scan run in an previous step) and then normallizes and compresses the results.

Scan Configuration

The predefined configuration to use for the scan. All scan steps have at least one configuration.

The following options are supported for Zap scans:



  • Instance Scan a running application.


The Identifier that you want to assign to the target you’re scanning in the pipeline. Use a unique, descriptive name such as codebaseAlpha or jsmith/myalphaservice. Using descriptive target names will make it much easier to navigate your scan data in the STO UI.


An identifier for a specific variant to scan, such as the branch name or image tag. This identifier is used to differentiate or group results for a target. Harness maintains a historical trend for each variant.

You can see the target name, type, and variant in the Test Targets UI:

Target name, type, and branch


The workspace path on the pod running the Security step. The workspace path is /harness by default.

You can override this if you want to scan only a subset of the workspace. For example, suppose the pipeline publishes artifacts to a subfolder /tmp/artifacts and you want to scan these artifacts only. In this case, you can specify the workspace path as /harness/tmp/artifacts.

Ingestion File

The results data file to use when running an Ingestion scan.

Generally an Ingestion scan consists of a scan step (to generate the data file) and an ingestion step (to ingest the data file).

In addition to ingesting scan data in the external scanner's native format, STO steps can also ingest data in SARIF and Harness Custom JSON format.

For more information, go to Ingest Scan Results into an STO Pipeline.



Domain of the application instance to scan. You can include the full path to the app in this field, or split the full path between the Domain and the Path fields. Example:


HTTPS (default) or HTTP.


The TCP port used by the scanned app instance.


Path to append to the application instance domain, if you're splitting the full path between the Domain and Path settings. For example, you might specify the domain as and the path as /portal/us.

Log Level, CLI flags, and Fail on Severity

Log Level

The minimum severity of the messages you want to include in your scan logs. You can specify one of the following:

  • INFO

Additional CLI flags

You can use this field to customize the scan with specific command-line arguments supported by that scanner.

Fail on Severity

Every Security step has a Fail on Severity setting. If the scan finds any vulnerability with the specified severity level or higher, the pipeline fails automatically. You can specify one of the following:

  • HIGH
  • LOW
  • INFO
  • NONE — Do not fail on severity

The YAML definition looks like this: fail_on_severity : critical # | high | medium | low | info | none

Additional Configuration

In the Additional Configuration settings, you can use the following options:

Advanced settings

In the Advanced settings, you can use the following options:

Security step settings for ZAP scans in STO (legacy)

Scan policy types

STO supports the following scan policy types for ZAP:

  • orchestratedScan  — A Security step in the pipeline runs the scan and ingests the results. This is easier to set up and supports scans with default or predefined settings.
  • ingestionOnly — Run the scan in a Run step, or outside the pipeline, and then ingest the results. This is useful for advanced workflows that address specific security needs. See Ingest scan results into an STO pipeline.

Target and variant

The following settings are required for every Security step:

  • target_name A user-defined label for the code repository, container, application, or configuration to scan.
  • variant A user-defined label for the branch, tag, or other target variant to scan.

Make sure that you give unique, descriptive names for the target and variant. This makes navigating your scan results in the STO UI much easier.

You can see the target name, type, and variant in the Test Targets UI:

Target name, type, and branch

For more information, go to Targets, baselines, and variants in STO.

ZAP scan settings

  • product_name = zap
  • scan_typeinstance
  • product_config_name— Specify one of the following:
    • standard (scanMode = active, scanType = standard)
    • attack(scanMode = active, scanType = attack)
    • quick(scanMode = active, scanType = standard, quickMode = true)
  • instance_identifier— The target Id that will appear in the Test Targets page of the Harness UI.
  • instance_environment — The instance environment, such as dev, qa, pre-qa, or prod.
  • instance_domain — The app domain to scan, for example
  • instance_protocol — The protocol of the site to scan. Generally this is http or https.
  • instance_typewebsite
  • fail_on_severity - See Fail on Severity.

Optional settings for ZAP scans

  • instance_path — Specify if the app URL includes a path beyond the domain. If you want to scan, the instance path is myModule/myApp.
  • instance_port — Specify if the site is accessed using a non-default port.

Ingestion settings

The following setting is required for Security steps where the policy_type is ingestionOnly.

  • ingestion_file The results data file to use when running an Ingestion scan. You should specify the full path to the data file in your workspace, such as /shared/customer_artifacts/my_scan_results.json.

    In addition to ingesting scan data in the external scanner's native format, STO steps can also ingest data in SARIF and Harness Custom JSON format.

    The following steps outline the general workflow for ingesting scan data into your pipeline. For a complete workflow description and example, go to Ingest Scan Results into an STO Pipeline.

    1. Specify a shared folder for your scan results, such as /shared/customer_artifacts. You can do this in the Overview tab of the Security stage where you're ingesting your data.

    2. Create a Run step that copies your scan results to the shared folder. You can run your scan externally, before you run the build, or set up the Run step to run the scan and then copy the results.

    3. Add a Security step after the Run step and add the target name, variant, and ingestion_file settings as described above.